How did the civil war break out in Syria, why did Syria become a geopolitical playground, who is fighting against whom?

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How did the civil war break out in Syria, why did Syria become a geopolitical playground, who is fighting against whom?

 

How did the civil war break out in Syria, why did Syria become a geopolitical playground, who is fighting against whom? Why has this war now turned into an 'Endless War'? (Episode 1)


Recently, the speaker of the Syrian legislature, Hamouda Sabbagh, announced that the next presidential election will be held on May 26 in the war-torn country of Syria (source - Reuters). Since then, new talks on Syria have begun. This will be the second presidential election in Syria since the start of the civil war. Analysts say the election will strengthen the power of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. In today's post, we will discuss how the Syrian civil war started and why Syria has become a geopolitical playground.


How did the civil war break out in Syria, why did Syria become a geopolitical playground, who is fighting against whom?
How did the civil war break out in Syria, why did Syria become a geopolitical playground, who is fighting against whom?


(A Quick Disclaimer- I have tried to highlight only the basic issues without going into the in-depth discussion here)


To understand this crisis in Syria, you have to go back to the Arab Spring. A few days ago I posted a detailed post on my timeline about the Arab Spring (post number 31). Here too I will try to highlight a little. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia in December 2010 in the hope of establishing democracy and prosperity after the fall of the dictatorship. Tunisia's dictator Ben Ali fell in the cannon of the mass movement. The wave of anti-Tunisian anti-dictatorship movements has spread to various countries in the Arab world. One by one, dictators like Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, Moammar Gaddafi of Libya, Saleh of Yemen fell.


That's why analysts thought the Arab Spring might not have an impact on Syria

Many analysts have suggested that Syria may not be affected by the Arab Spring. Of course, there was a reason behind it. First, al-Assad's Ba'ath party has been in power in the country for more than 40 years. The Bath Party took control of the whole country. Second, Bashar al-Assad's secular state was supported by many Sunni Muslims. Later it was seen that the wind of Arab Spring was also blowing in Syria. The first protests against the Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad took place in late January 2011. But it was smaller and more isolated than other Arab countries. President Bashar al-Assad has been cracking down on protesters since the beginning of the year.


The way the civil war started

Authorities opposed the protest with all available police forces, special services, and the army. " The Syrian people erupted in protest against the incident in the country's Deraa city. Government forces opened fire there. Several protesters were killed. Then the protests spread all over the country. At one point, a section of the Syrian army quit its job in solidarity with the agitating people and started armed conflict against Assad. This is the beginning of the Syrian civil war.


The way the situation takes a complex shape

To bring the situation under control, Bashar al-Assad continues to operate across the country with tanks, artillery, and helicopter gunships. Thousands of protesters were killed in just three months. Rebels also become more powerful. Subsequent events are so complex, it is difficult to keep accurate accounts. The civil war between the government and the rebels continued year after year through attacks, counter-attacks, occupation of the city, liberation from that occupation, and recapture. Millions of people were killed and thousands of ordinary people fled the country as refugees.


The rebels formed the Free Syrian Army 8

There are various factions among these rebels. The rebels were initially disorganized but gradually organized into outside support. They came together to form an organized force. Named "Free Syrian Army". The West ousted Assad and set out to establish a so-called democracy in Syria. Russia continues to cooperate with Bashar al-Assad on all issues.

Shiites have sided with Bashar al-Assad in Iran and Iraq, and in Hezbollah in Lebanon. On the other hand, the Sunni majority in Turkey, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia support the opposition. Thus Syria became a geopolitical playground.


Rebels continue to occupy one city after another

In 1962, Bashar al-Assad's father, Hafiz al-Assad, ordered a military operation against the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Thousands of Brotherhood workers were killed in that operation. Brotherhood activists also joined the Free Syrian Army to seek revenge. In September 2011, the "Free Syrian Army" also received direct support from Turkey. In October 2011, rebels launched their first attack on Bashar al-Assad's army with tanks and helicopters to seize the city of Qom. Since then, the Free Syrian Army has occupied much of the country. The rebels took control of large cities, such as Aleppo. Bashar al-Assad continues to lose control of various parts of the country.


Syria was Russia's only foothold in the Arab world

But the rebels did not last long. In 2015, Russia's direct intervention in the Syrian civil war on Assad's side changed all accounts. Russia also appoints military advisers to Assad. At that time, Russia had no better friend in the Arab world except Syria. With the exception of Syria, Russia has no place in the Middle East. That is why Syria is called the foothold of Russia.


Why did Russia side with Bashar al-Assad?

Russia has sided with Bashar al-Assad, Russia's best and closest ally in the Arab world, and supplied arms to control Arab world politics by building Russian military bases in Syria. The Assad government usually attacked rebel-held areas with tanks, bombs, and missiles. The effects of tank missiles did not last long. At the time of the attack, the rebels had fled the area for a while, but after the attack, the rebels regrouped and resumed operations.


Bashar al-Assad turned around with the help of Russia

Then in 2015, Russia and Assad began using chemical/biological weapons to prevent the rebels from regrouping in the government-occupied territory. Because the effects of these chemical weapons are very long-lasting and there is panic among the general public due to chemical weapons. Russia began direct airstrikes on Syrian rebels. With Russian help, Bashar al-Assad's forces regained control of large parts of Damascus and the city of Aleppo.


The way the United States ensures its entry into Syria

A common denominator in international politics is Russia and America. The United States has said no to Russia's support. Since Russia has sided with Bashar al-Assad, the United States has sided with the rebels and started providing arms. Then, under the leadership of Barack Obama, Bashar al-Assad in Syria created a militant group called IS to fight against al-Assad and overthrow Russia. The United States confirmed its entry into Syria through the establishment of this IS.


That's why Iran needs Syria

There is a political party in Lebanon. Whose name is Hezbollah? In the long-running conflict between Palestine and Israel, the Lebanese political party Hezbollah is helping the Palestinians with weapons. Iran is again helping Hezbollah with weapons. Hezbollah and Iran want to keep Israel together. So the road Iran has to take to provide arms to Hezbollah in Lebanon is Syria. To reach Lebanon, Iran has to use the Syrian route. So Iran needs Syria. Because of this need, Iran is not on the side of Bashar al-Assad in Syria. Moreover, Iran thought that if Assad fell in Syria, it would lose its ally.


The way Syria has become a proxy war zone and who is fighting against whom now?


First, Iran is helping Hezbollah fight Israel, and second, Iran is supporting Bashar al-Assad. That is why Israel stands against Assad. Also, Israel is always with America. Wherever America is, there is Israel. Since then, the war in Syria has turned into a proxy war between the government and the rebels. On one side are the US, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, IS, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the Syrian rebel military. On the other hand, Bashar al-Assad, Russia, Iran, Iraq, Hezbollah.


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